This Medinian sûrah, which takes its name from the reference to iron in verse 25, is an invitation to strive in Allāh's cause and spend in His Way. Similar to the next sûrah, a strong emphasis is placed on Allāh's knowledge and power. It is made clear that Allāh is able to revive faith in the hearts of the believers just as He can revive the earth after its death. The believers are advised regarding destiny and the life of this world, while the hypocrites are warned of the evil fate awaiting them. Some prophets are mentioned passingly before making a final invitation to the People of the Book to believe in Allāh and His Prophet ( ﷺ ) .
Details from Tafheem-ul-Qurʾān
NameThe Surah takes its title from the sentence, Wa anzalna' l-hadida, of verse 25.
Period of RevelationThis is unanimously a Madani Surah, and a study of its subject matter shows that it was probably sent down some time during the interval between the Battle of Uhud and the Truce of Hudaibiyah. This was the time when the tiny Islamic State of Madinah had been hemmed in by the disbelievers and the handful of the ill equipped Muslims were entrenched against the combined power of entire Arabia. In this state Islam not only stood in need of the sacrifice of Life from its followers, but it also needed monetary help and assistance. In this Surah a forceful appeal has been made for the same. This view is further strengthened by verse 10 in which Allāh has addressed the believers to the effect: "Those of you who would spend and fight after the victory can never be equal to those who have spent and fought before the victory." And the same is supported by the traditions that Ibn Marduyah has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas. In respect of the verse Alam ya'n-i lilladhina aamanu an takhsha'a qulubu- hum li-dhikrillah-i, he says that 17 years after the commencement of the revelation of the Qurʾān this verse was sent down to arouse the believers to action. Reckoned thus the period of the revelation of this Surah falls between the 4th and the 5th year after the hijra.
Theme and Subject MatterThe theme of this Surah is to exhort the Muslims to spend in the cause of Allāh. At the most critical juncture of the history of Islam when it was engaged in a life and death struggle against Arab paganism, this Surah was revealed to persuade the Muslim's to make monetary sacrifices in particular, and to make them realize that Islam did not merely consist in verbal affirmation and some outward practices but its essence and spirit is sincerity towards Allāh and His Religion. The faith of the one who was devoid of this spirit and who regarded his own self and wealth as dearer to himself than Allāh and His Religion, was hollow and therefore of little worth in the sight of Allāh. For this object, first the attributes of Allāh Almighty have been mentioned so that the listeners may fully realize as to Who is addressing them. Then, the following themes have been expressed in sequence:
The inevitable demand of the Faith is that one should not shirk spending one's wealth for the sake of Allāh. This would not only be contrary to the Faith but also wrong realistically. For the wealth indeed belongs to Allāh, on which man has been given proprietary rights only as His vicegerent. Yesterday this wealth was in other people's possession; today it is with one particular man, and tomorrow it will pass into some one else's hand. Ultimately, it will go back to Allāh, Who is the inheritor of everything in the universe. Only that much of this wealth will be of any use to a man, which he spends in the cause of Allāh during the period it is in his possession. Although making sacrifices for the sake of Allāh is commendable in any case, the true worth of these sacrifices is determined by the nature of the occasion. There is an occasion when the power of paganism is overwhelming and there is a danger that it might subdue and overcome Islam completely; there is another occasion when Islam is in a stronger position in its struggle gainst un-Islam and the believers are attaining victories. Both these states are not equal as regards their respective importance. Therefore, the sacrifices that are made in these different states would also not be equal. Those who sacrifice their lives and expend their wealth to further promote the cause of Islam when it is already strong cannot attain to the rank of those who struggled with their lives and their wealth to promote and uphold the cause of Islam when it was weak. Whatever is spent for the cause of the Truth is a loan on Allāh, and Allāh will not only return it increasing it manifold but will also give from Himself the best reward for it. In the Hereafter the Light shall be bestowed only on those believers who would have spent their wealth in the cause of Allāh. As for the hypocrites who watched and served only their own interests in the world, and who least bothered whether the Truth or falsehood prevailed will be segregated from the believers in the Hereafter although they might have lived in close association with them in the world. They will be deprived of the Light, and they will be counted among the disbelievers. The Muslims should not behave like those followers of the earlier Books, whose lives have been. spent in the worship of the world and whose hearts have become hardened due to negligence with the passage of time. He cannot be a believer whose heart does not melt at the remembrance of Allāh and does not bow to the Truth sent down by Him. The sincere upholders of the Truth and the true witnesses of the Faith in the sight of Allāh are only those believers who spend their wealth in His way sincerely, without any desire of show. The life of this world is only a short lived spring and a means of pride and show. Its sports and pastimes, its adornments and decorations, its pride of place, its wealth and possessions, for which the people try to vie with one another, are transient. Its likeness is of the crop which flourishes and blooms, then turns pale and then finally is reduced to chaff. The everlasting life is the life hereafter when results of great consequence will be announced. Therefore, if one has to vie with another for something, one should strive for Paradise. Whatever good man meets with and whatever hardship he suffers in the world, are pre-ordained by Allāh. A true believer is he who does not lose heart in affliction and is not puffed up with pride in good times. It is the character of a hypocrite and disbeliever that he is puffed up with pride when Allāh favours him with His blessings, behaved boastfully and shows stinginess when called upon to spend in the cause of the same God Who blessed him, and also counsels others to be stingy like himself. Allāh sent His Messengers with clear signs and the Book and the Law of Justice so that the people may adhere to justice; besides, He sent down iron also so that power may be used to establish the Truth and vanquish falsehood. Thus, Allāh likes to see as to who from among the people would rise to support and succour His true Religion even at the risk of their lives. These opportunities Allāh has created for man's own advantage and development; otherwise Allāh does not stand in need of others for His works. Prophets came from Allāh in the past, and by their preaching some people adopted the Right Path, but most of them persisted in wickedness. Then the Prophet Jesus came, whose teachings brought about many moral improvements in the lives of the people, but his community invented monasticism. Now Allāh has sent the Prophet Muḥammad (upon whom be His peace and blessings). Those who affirm faith in him and pass their life fearing Allāh's accountability, will be given by Allāh a double share of His mercy and He will bless them with the Light by which they will see and walk the straight path among the crooked paths met with at every step in the life of this world. Although the followers of the earlier revelation regard themselves as the monopolists of Allāh's bounties, the fact remains that Allāh Himself controls His bounties He may bless with these whomever He pleases.