Muwatta Imam Malik Book of Zakat, Hadith 46

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to his governors telling them to relieve any people who payed the jizya from paying the jizya if they became muslims.
Malik said, "The sunna is that there is no jizya due from women or children of people of the Book, and that jizya is only taken from men who have reached puberty. The people of dhimma and the magians do not have to pay any zakat on their palms or their vines or their crops or their livestock. This is because zakat is imposed on the muslims to purify them and to be given back to their poor, whereas jizya is imposed on the people of the Book to humble them. As long as they are in the country they have agreed to live in, they do not have to pay anything on their property except the jizya. If, however, they trade in muslim countries, coming and going in them, a tenth is taken from what they invest in such trade. This is because jizya is only imposed on them on conditions, which they have agreed on, namely that they will remain in their own countries, and that war will be waged for them on any enemy of theirs, and that if they then leave that land to go anywhere else to do business they will haveto pay a tenth. Whoever among them does business with the people of Egypt, and then goes to Syria, and then does business with the people of Syria and then goes to Iraq and does business with them and then goes on to Madina, or Yemen, or other similar places, has to pay a tenth.
People of the Book and magians do not have to pay any zakat on any of their property, livestock, produce or crops. The sunna still continues like that. They remain in the deen they were in, and they continue to do what they used to do. If in any one year they frequently come and go in muslim countries then they have to pay a tenth every time they do so, since that is outside what they have agreed upon, and not one of the conditions stipulated for them. This is what I have seen the people of knowledge of our city doing."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى عُمَّالِهِ أَنْ يَضَعُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجِزْيَةِ حِينَ يُسْلِمُونَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ أَنْ لاَ جِزْيَةَ عَلَى نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلاَ عَلَى صِبْيَانِهِمْ وَأَنَّ الْجِزْيَةَ لاَ تُؤْخَذُ إِلاَّ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ الَّذِينَ قَدْ بَلَغُوا الْحُلُمَ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ وَلاَ عَلَى الْمَجُوسِ فِي نَخِيلِهِمْ وَلاَ كُرُومِهِمْ وَلاَ زُرُوعِهِمْ وَلاَ مَوَاشِيهِمْ صَدَقَةٌ لأَنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ إِنَّمَا وُضِعَتْ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ تَطْهِيرًا لَهُمْ وَرَدًّا عَلَى فُقَرَائِهِمْ وَوُضِعَتِ الْجِزْيَةُ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ صَغَارًا لَهُمْ فَهُمْ مَا كَانُوا بِبَلَدِهِمُ الَّذِينَ صَالَحُوا عَلَيْهِ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِمْ شَىْءٌ سِوَى الْجِزْيَةِ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَتَّجِرُوا فِي بِلاَدِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَيَخْتَلِفُوا فِيهَا فَيُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمُ الْعُشْرُ فِيمَا يُدِيرُونَ مِنَ التِّجَارَاتِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُمْ إِنَّمَا وُضِعَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجِزْيَةُ وَصَالَحُوا عَلَيْهَا عَلَى أَنْ يُقَرُّوا بِبِلاَدِهِمْ وَيُقَاتَلَ عَنْهُمْ عَدُوُّهُمْ فَمَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ بِلاَدِهِ إِلَى غَيْرِهَا يَتْجُرُ إِلَيْهَا فَعَلَيْهِ الْعُشْرُ مَنْ تَجَرَ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ مِصْرَ إِلَى الشَّامِ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ إِلَى الْعِرَاقِ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ أَوِ الْيَمَنِ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ هَذَا مِنَ الْبِلاَدِ فَعَلَيْهِ الْعُشْرُ وَلاَ صَدَقَةَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلاَ الْمَجُوسِ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَلاَ مِنْ مَوَاشِيهِمْ وَلاَ ثِمَارِهِمْ وَلاَ زُرُوعِهِمْ مَضَتْ بِذَلِكَ السُّنَّةُ وَيُقَرُّونَ عَلَى دِينِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَى مَا كَانُوا عَلَيْهِ وَإِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْعَامِ الْوَاحِدِ مِرَارًا فِي بِلاَدِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَعَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّمَا اخْتَلَفُوا الْعُشْرُ لأَنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيْسَ مِمَّا صَالَحُوا عَلَيْهِ وَلاَ مِمَّا شُرِطَ لَهُمْ وَهَذَا الَّذِي أَدْرَكْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا .


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